# Probability & Efficiency

Try this experiment: roll a dice repeatedly, with the goal of rolling each possibility at least once. On the first roll, the chance of a “collision” (rolling something you’ve already rolled before, therefore wasting that roll) is zero. The next roll will have a 1 in 6 chance of colliding, since you might roll the same number as before. After 5 numbers have been discovered, you’re likely to need several attempts before discovering the final number, since you only have a 1 in 6 chance every time you roll.

# Chain Collisions

Remember that one requirement for a hash chain is that it’s deterministic, because we need to be able to reproduce the chain from scratch. However, this creates a problem if a hash from one chain collides with one in another. Consider the following example:

# Rainbow Tables

This is where the innovation of rainbow tables comes in. With a rainbow table we add a second parameter to our reduce function, as a sort of “salt”, which changes depending on our position in the chain. Just like before, the reduce function is still deterministic, it just takes one extra piece of information.

• Insecure password hashes are capable of being cracked with pretty reasonable speed on modern cracking rigs (You can do a full 8 character NTLM crack in less than a day on an RTX 3090, and you can crack thousands of hashes simultaneously, all without storing TeraBytes of Data)
• Rainbow Tables are still heavily constrained by modern hardware. Most people don’t have TeraBytes of storage available, and you still need to do the equivalent of several brute-forces to generate the rainbow table in the first place. The best rainbow tables publicly available only go up to 8 characters for a full character set, and 10 characters for a lower-case only character set (which is useless with modern complexity rules).
• Brute-force attacks aren’t that effective anymore. Back when most services and users had very short passwords, the ability to crack any 8 character password resulted in excellent results. However, due to the popularity of password policies with complexity rules, most users pick passwords longer than 8 characters. The most commonly cracked passwords these days are similar to “Password123” or “Summer@2021”, which are far longer than 8 characters. In fact, the average password length is over 9 characters, for which an 8 character brute-force will do no good.
• Wordlist attacks with manipulation rules are far more effective at getting actual user-picked passwords. Real users don’t randomly generate passwords (with the exception of security-minded folks, who know better than to generate only 8 characters). Real users pick one or two words, then add a few extra numbers and symbols to satisfy the complexity requirements. An attack with a massive wordlist and ruleset (weakpass2a with OneRule is my go-to for NTLM, which an RTX 3090 can crunch in a couple hours) gets approximately 60% of real user passwords.

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## More from Ryan Sheasby

Information Security Engineer, Passionate about AppSec, algorithms, Go, and ZFS, among lots of other things.

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## Ryan Sheasby

26 Followers

Information Security Engineer, Passionate about AppSec, algorithms, Go, and ZFS, among lots of other things.